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Tuesday, 30 June 2015

Data Scraping - Increasing Accessibility by Scraping Information From PDF

You may have heard about data scraping which is a method that is being used by computer programs in extracting data from an output that comes from another program. To put it simply, this is a process which involves the automatic sorting of information that can be found on different resources including the internet which is inside an html file, PDF or any other documents. In addition to that, there is the collection of pertinent information. These pieces of information will be contained into the databases or spreadsheets so that the users can retrieve them later.

Most of the websites today have text that can be accessed and written easily in the source code. However, there are now other businesses nowadays that choose to make use of Adobe PDF files or Portable Document Format. This is a type of file that can be viewed by simply using the free software known as the Adobe Acrobat. Almost any operating system supports the said software. There are many advantages when you choose to utilize PDF files. Among them is that the document that you have looks exactly the same even if you put it in another computer so that you can view it. Therefore, this makes it ideal for business documents or even specification sheets. Of course there are disadvantages as well. One of which is that the text that is contained in the file is converted into an image. In this case, it is often that you may have problems with this when it comes to the copying and pasting.

This is why there are some that start scraping information from PDF. This is often called PDF scraping in which this is the process that is just like data scraping only that you will be getting information that is contained in your PDF files. In order for you to begin scraping information from PDF, you must choose and exploit a tool that is specifically designed for this process. However, you will find that it is not easy to locate the right tool that will enable you to perform PDF scraping effectively. This is because most of the tools today have problems in obtaining exactly the same data that you want without personalizing them.

Nevertheless, if you search well enough, you will be able to encounter the program that you are looking for. There is no need for you to have programming language knowledge in order for you to use them. You can easily specify your own preferences and the software will do the rest of the work for you. There are also companies out there that you can contact and they will perform the task since they have the right tools that they can use. If you choose to do things manually, you will find that this is indeed tedious and complicated whereas if you compare this to having professionals do the job for you, they will be able to finish it in no time at all. Scraping information from PDF is a process where you collect the information that can be found on the internet and this does not infringe copyright laws.

Source: http://ezinearticles.com/?Increasing-Accessibility-by-Scraping-Information-From-PDF&id=4593863

Tuesday, 23 June 2015

Web Scraping: working with APIs

APIs present researchers with a diverse set of data sources through a standardised access mechanism: send a pasted together HTTP request, receive JSON or XML in return. Today we tap into a range of APIs to get comfortable sending queries and processing responses.

These are the slides from the final class in Web Scraping through R: Web scraping for the humanities and social sciences

This week we explore how to use APIs in R, focusing on the Google Maps API. We then attempt to transfer this approach to query the Yandex Maps API. Finally, the practice section includes examples of working with the YouTube V2 API, a few ‘social’ APIs such as LinkedIn and Twitter, as well as APIs less off the beaten track (Cricket scores, anyone?).

I enjoyed teaching this course and hope to repeat and improve on it next year. When designing the course I tried to cram in everything I wish I had been taught early on in my PhD (resulting in information overload, I fear). Still, hopefully it has been useful to students getting started with digital data collection, showing on the one hand what is possible, and on the other giving some idea of key steps in achieving research objectives.

Download the .Rpres file to use in Rstudio here

A regular R script with code-snippets only can be accessed here

Slides from the first session here

Slides from the second session here

Slides from the third session here

Source: http://www.r-bloggers.com/web-scraping-working-with-apis/

Thursday, 18 June 2015

Three Common Methods For Data Extraction

Probably the most common technique used traditionally to extract data from web pages this is to cook up some regular expressions that match the pieces you want (e.g., URL's and link titles). Our screen-scraper software actually started out as an application written in Perl for this very reason. In addition to regular expressions, you might also use some code written in something like Java or Active Server Pages to parse out larger chunks of text. Using raw regular expressions to pull out the data can be a little intimidating to the uninitiated, and can get a bit messy when a script contains a lot of them. At the same time, if you're already familiar with regular expressions, and your scraping project is relatively small, they can be a great solution.

Other techniques for getting the data out can get very sophisticated as algorithms that make use of artificial intelligence and such are applied to the page. Some programs will actually analyze the semantic content of an HTML page, then intelligently pull out the pieces that are of interest. Still other approaches deal with developing "ontologies", or hierarchical vocabularies intended to represent the content domain.

There are a number of companies (including our own) that offer commercial applications specifically intended to do screen-scraping. The applications vary quite a bit, but for medium to large-sized projects they're often a good solution. Each one will have its own learning curve, so you should plan on taking time to learn the ins and outs of a new application. Especially if you plan on doing a fair amount of screen-scraping it's probably a good idea to at least shop around for a screen-scraping application, as it will likely save you time and money in the long run.

So what's the best approach to data extraction? It really depends on what your needs are, and what resources you have at your disposal. Here are some of the pros and cons of the various approaches, as well as suggestions on when you might use each one:

Raw regular expressions and code

Advantages:

- If you're already familiar with regular expressions and at least one programming language, this can be a quick solution.

- Regular expressions allow for a fair amount of "fuzziness" in the matching such that minor changes to the content won't break them.

- You likely don't need to learn any new languages or tools (again, assuming you're already familiar with regular expressions and a programming language).

- Regular expressions are supported in almost all modern programming languages. Heck, even VBScript has a regular expression engine. It's also nice because the various regular expression implementations don't vary too significantly in their syntax.

Disadvantages:

- They can be complex for those that don't have a lot of experience with them. Learning regular expressions isn't like going from Perl to Java. It's more like going from Perl to XSLT, where you have to wrap your mind around a completely different way of viewing the problem.

- They're often confusing to analyze. Take a look through some of the regular expressions people have created to match something as simple as an email address and you'll see what I mean.

- If the content you're trying to match changes (e.g., they change the web page by adding a new "font" tag) you'll likely need to update your regular expressions to account for the change.

- The data discovery portion of the process (traversing various web pages to get to the page containing the data you want) will still need to be handled, and can get fairly complex if you need to deal with cookies and such.

When to use this approach: You'll most likely use straight regular expressions in screen-scraping when you have a small job you want to get done quickly. Especially if you already know regular expressions, there's no sense in getting into other tools if all you need to do is pull some news headlines off of a site.

Ontologies and artificial intelligence

Advantages:

- You create it once and it can more or less extract the data from any page within the content domain you're targeting.

- The data model is generally built in. For example, if you're extracting data about cars from web sites the extraction engine already knows what the make, model, and price are, so it can easily map them to existing data structures (e.g., insert the data into the correct locations in your database).

- There is relatively little long-term maintenance required. As web sites change you likely will need to do very little to your extraction engine in order to account for the changes.

Disadvantages:

- It's relatively complex to create and work with such an engine. The level of expertise required to even understand an extraction engine that uses artificial intelligence and ontologies is much higher than what is required to deal with regular expressions.

- These types of engines are expensive to build. There are commercial offerings that will give you the basis for doing this type of data extraction, but you still need to configure them to work with the specific content domain you're targeting.

- You still have to deal with the data discovery portion of the process, which may not fit as well with this approach (meaning you may have to create an entirely separate engine to handle data discovery). Data discovery is the process of crawling web sites such that you arrive at the pages where you want to extract data.

When to use this approach: Typically you'll only get into ontologies and artificial intelligence when you're planning on extracting information from a very large number of sources. It also makes sense to do this when the data you're trying to extract is in a very unstructured format (e.g., newspaper classified ads). In cases where the data is very structured (meaning there are clear labels identifying the various data fields), it may make more sense to go with regular expressions or a screen-scraping application.

Screen-scraping software

Advantages:

- Abstracts most of the complicated stuff away. You can do some pretty sophisticated things in most screen-scraping applications without knowing anything about regular expressions, HTTP, or cookies.

- Dramatically reduces the amount of time required to set up a site to be scraped. Once you learn a particular screen-scraping application the amount of time it requires to scrape sites vs. other methods is significantly lowered.

- Support from a commercial company. If you run into trouble while using a commercial screen-scraping application, chances are there are support forums and help lines where you can get assistance.

Disadvantages:

- The learning curve. Each screen-scraping application has its own way of going about things. This may imply learning a new scripting language in addition to familiarizing yourself with how the core application works.

- A potential cost. Most ready-to-go screen-scraping applications are commercial, so you'll likely be paying in dollars as well as time for this solution.

- A proprietary approach. Any time you use a proprietary application to solve a computing problem (and proprietary is obviously a matter of degree) you're locking yourself into using that approach. This may or may not be a big deal, but you should at least consider how well the application you're using will integrate with other software applications you currently have. For example, once the screen-scraping application has extracted the data how easy is it for you to get to that data from your own code?

When to use this approach: Screen-scraping applications vary widely in their ease-of-use, price, and suitability to tackle a broad range of scenarios. Chances are, though, that if you don't mind paying a bit, you can save yourself a significant amount of time by using one. If you're doing a quick scrape of a single page you can use just about any language with regular expressions. If you want to extract data from hundreds of web sites that are all formatted differently you're probably better off investing in a complex system that uses ontologies and/or artificial intelligence. For just about everything else, though, you may want to consider investing in an application specifically designed for screen-scraping.

As an aside, I thought I should also mention a recent project we've been involved with that has actually required a hybrid approach of two of the aforementioned methods. We're currently working on a project that deals with extracting newspaper classified ads. The data in classifieds is about as unstructured as you can get. For example, in a real estate ad the term "number of bedrooms" can be written about 25 different ways. The data extraction portion of the process is one that lends itself well to an ontologies-based approach, which is what we've done. However, we still had to handle the data discovery portion. We decided to use screen-scraper for that, and it's handling it just great. The basic process is that screen-scraper traverses the various pages of the site, pulling out raw chunks of data that constitute the classified ads. These ads then get passed to code we've written that uses ontologies in order to extract out the individual pieces we're after. Once the data has been extracted we then insert it into a database.

Source: http://ezinearticles.com/?Three-Common-Methods-For-Web-Data-Extraction&id=165416


Saturday, 6 June 2015

Scraping the Royal Society membership list

To a data scientist any data is fair game, from my interest in the history of science I came across the membership records of the Royal Society from 1660 to 2007 which are available as a single PDF file. I’ve scraped the membership list before: the first time around I wrote a C# application which parsed a plain text file which I had made from the original PDF using an online converting service, looking back at the code it is fiendishly complicated and cluttered by boilerplate code required to build a GUI. ScraperWiki includes a pdftoxml function so I thought I’d see if this would make the process of parsing easier, and compare the ScraperWiki experience more widely with my earlier scraper.

The membership list is laid out quite simply, as shown in the image below, each member (or Fellow) record spans two lines with the member name in the left most column on the first line and information on their birth date and the day they died, the class of their Fellowship and their election date on the second line.

Later in the document we find that information on the Presidents of the Royal Society is found on the same line as the Fellow name and that Royal Patrons are formatted a little differently. There are also alias records where the second line points to the primary record for the name on the first line.

pdftoxml converts a PDF into an xml file, wherein each piece of text is located on the page using spatial coordinates, an individual line looks like this:

<text top="243" left="135" width="221" height="14" font="2">Abbot, Charles, 1st Baron Colchester </text>

This makes parsing columnar data straightforward you simply need to select elements with particular values of the “left” attribute. It turns out that the columns are not in exactly the same positions throughout the whole document, which appears to have been constructed by tacking together the membership list A-J with that of K-Z, but this can easily be resolved by accepting a small range of positions for each column.

Attempting to automatically parse all 395 pages of the document reveals some transcription errors: one Fellow was apparently elected on 16th March 197 – a bit of Googling reveals that the real date is 16th March 1978. Another fellow is classed as a “Felllow”, and whilst most of the dates of birth and death are separated by a dash some are separated by an en dash which as far as the code is concerned is something completely different and so on. In my earlier iteration I missed some of these quirks or fixed them by editing the converted text file. These variations suggest that the source document was typed manually rather than being output from a pre-existing database. Since I couldn’t edit the source document I was obliged to code around these quirks.

ScraperWiki helpfully makes putting data into a SQLite database the simplest option for a scraper. My handling of dates in this version of the scraper is a little unsatisfactory: presidential terms are described in terms of a start and end year but are rendered 1st January of those years in the database. Furthermore, in historical documents dates may not be known accurately so someone may have a birth date described as “circa 1782? or “c 1782?, even more vaguely they may be described as having “flourished 1663-1778? or “fl. 1663-1778?. Python’s default datetime module does not capture this subtlety and if it did the database used to store dates would need to support it too to be useful – I’ve addressed this by storing the original life span data as text so that it can be analysed should the need arise. Storing dates as proper dates in the database, rather than text strings means we can query the database using date based queries.

ScraperWiki provides an API to my dataset so that I can query it using SQL, and since it is public anyone else can do this too. So, for example, it’s easy to write queries that tell you the the database contains 8019 Fellows, 56 Presidents, 387 born before 1700, 3657 with no birth date, 2360 with no death date, 204 “flourished”, 450 have birth dates “circa” some year.

I can count the number of classes of fellows:

select distinct class,count(*) from `RoyalSocietyFellows` group by class

Make a table of all of the Presidents of the Royal Society

select * from `RoyalSocietyFellows` where StartPresident not null order by StartPresident desc

…and so on. These illustrations just use the ScraperWiki htmltable export option to display the data as a table but equally I could use similar queries to pull data into a visualisation.

Comparing this to my earlier experience, the benefits of using ScraperWiki are:

•    Nice traceable code to provide a provenance for the dataset;

•    Access to the pdftoxml library;

•    Strong encouragement to “do the right thing” and put the data into a database;

•    Publication of the data;

•    A simple API giving access to the data for reuse by all.

My next target for ScraperWiki may well be the membership lists for the French Academie des Sciences, a task which proved too complex for a simple plain text scraper…

Source: https://scraperwiki.wordpress.com/2012/12/28/scraping-the-royal-society-membership-list/